Acne is a common skin problem in which hair follicles are covered with oil and dead cells, causing pimples or pimples to appear on the face, chest or back. The activity of the sebaceous glands, the production of hormones like androgens, and certain medications can make acne worse.
The causes of acne are:
– The excessive production of fat by the sebaceous glands.
– Excess hormonal activity of androgens that are in charge of regulating sebaceous production.
– Obstruction of hair follicles with fat and dead skin cells. This can lead to the proliferation of Cutibacterium acnes bacteria that can break the pore wall and facilitate access to other bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus that cause infection.
– Work in an environment with environmental grease like kitchens where there are fryers.
Acne can be classified by degree of severity, from mild to very severe or by type of injury (comedones – reddish grains – papules – many inflamed comedones – atrophic – leave cavities and scars – large comedones or acne conglobata, cystic –comedones, papules and / or pustules-, keloid – large residual scars-).
Acne can occur at any age, from birth to adulthood. The most common and persistent is preadolescent acne, which appears between 9 and 11 years of age and affects, above all, the T zone of the face – forehead, nose and chin – but as development progresses It can also appear on the chest, shoulders and back; and the premenstrual that is caused by hormonal disturbances of the menstrual cycle in women.
There are also environmental and occupational reasons for the appearance of acne, such as the severe variant that can be suffered in tropical regions; cosmetic acne from the use of products that clog pores or from not removing make-up regularly; or occupational acne from manipulation or contact with hydrocarbons or mineral oils.
As a side effect of taking drugs like corticosteroids it can cause iatrogenic acne.
Comedones and Pustules
The main signs of acne are:
– Clogged or open pores (comedones), which are reddish grains.
– Pimples with pus or pustules.
– Nodules. Large, solid and painful pimples under the skin.
Visual examination and medical history are usually sufficient to establish the diagnosis of acne.
Acne Medication and Treatment
Control and Avoid Scarring and Damage
There is a wide range of solutions to treat acne, but above all, you must be consistent and have an application routine. Therapeutic options range from topical medications, in cream, gel or lotion format to prevent plugging of hair follicles. Retinoid medications, antibiotics for moderate to severe acne, and oral contraceptives for women may also be administered. If antibiotics are not effective, another option is antiandrogens.
Selection of Cosmetics
Regular exfoliation of the skin and the use of oil-free or oil-free cosmetics are one of the measures that prevent the worsening of acne or reduce its presence. The dermatologist will be able to recommend the most suitable products for our skin type.
Avoiding touching the face with hands, fingers, mobile etc. which can help prevent acne from spreading since contact by friction is a risk factor to worsen it. It is also crucial to remove makeup every night and follow a routine of cleaning the skin, especially the face, every morning when you wake up and every night when you go to bed.