Thursday, July 2, 2020
Home Health What is a Sun Allergy? | Symptoms, Causes and How to treat...

What is a Sun Allergy? | Symptoms, Causes and How to treat the disease?

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They are popularly known as “Sun Allergy” but it really is not the correct clinical term, that is photodermatosis. It is a group of cutaneous diseases that have pathological photosensitivity as a primary symptom or phenomenon. Photosensitivity is an abnormal reaction to ultraviolet radiation. The most common are acquired idiopathic photodermatoses, of spontaneous eruption or unknown cause, such as polymorphic solar rash.

Causes of Sun Allergy

Abnormal reaction to Ultraviolet Radiation

Photodermatoses, popularly known as allergies to the sun, caused by an abnormal reaction to ultraviolet radiation can be:

Acquired idiopathic photodermatoses such as: Solar polymorphous rash, Actinic prurigo, Bazin’s vacciniform hydroa, Solar urticaria or Chronic actinic dermatitis (photosensitive eczema, actinic reticuloid, persistent light reactivity and photosensitivity dermatitis). Chronic actinic dermatitis is believed to have an immune basis.

Disorders due to defective DNA repair such as: Xeroderma pigmentosum , Bloom syndrome or Cockayne syndrome.

Photosensitization by chemical substances (exogenous or endogenous): Porphyrias, Photoallergies and Photosensitivity. They can be associated with the same drugs such as: antiarrhythmics, contraceptives, anticonvulsants, antihypertensives, oral antidiabetics, antiparasitics, psoralen, cytostatics, antidepressants, diuretics, antipsychotics, antihistamines, non-steroidal and / or antimicrobial anti-inflammatory drugs.

Dermatoses exacerbated by ultraviolet radiation such as: Acne vulgaris, Carcinoid syndrome, Dermatomyositis, Disseminated superficial actinic prorokeratosis, Lichen planus, Lupus erythematosus, Pellagra, Rosacea , Flat warts, Pityriasis alba or Haley-Haley disease.

Solar urticaria. It is an immunoglobulin E (Ig E) mediated type 1 hypersensitivity reaction. It is very rare and usually appears, especially in women, between the ages of 20 and 40. It starts with itching and erythema and in a few minutes there are hives in photo-exposed areas such as the face and hands that disappear in an hour or two, and do not leave a scar, avoiding exposure to the sun.

Sun Allergy Symptoms

Depend on the type of Photodermatosysis

The signs and symptoms of so-called sun allergy depend on the type of photodermatosis. The most common are spontaneous irruption or unknown cause (idiopathic) photodermatoses:

Solar polymorphous rash: It affects more women than light-skinned men (phototype I / IV). It can appear from childhood to, usually, 30 years. They usually have a family history. It characteristically occurs in spring and dims as the hot, sunny months progress. Lesions appear on the skin, usually the chest, (papules, papulovesicles, plaques, vesicles, blisters or eczema ), although it is true that you can feel only itching. Lesions that occur between 30 minutes from the start of sun exposure to several hours later. These lesions disappear one to seven days later without scarring.

Actinic prurigo: It usually appears between the ages of five and ten, especially in girls, and disappears at puberty. Patients often have a family history. Actinic prurigo presents with a rash that can last all year but worsens in summer. It presents as open (excoriated) papules and nodules, very itchy and, usually, with eczema, lichenification and crusts.

Chronic actinic dermatitis includes photosensitive eczema, actinic reticuloid, persistent light reactivity and photosensitivity dermatitis: It has an insidious onset. It is most frequently diagnosed in older men and begins with itchy face, neck, and back of the hands. The itch progresses to eczematous lesions, papules and infiltrated bales that can appear in exposed areas but later appear in areas normally covered by clothing.

Hydroa vacciniforme de Bazin: It is very rare and usually appears in children up to ten years of age with a clear phototype I / II. It usually coexists with atopic dermatitis . Erythema appears, usually on the face, after long sun exposure that evolves to blistering and leaves scars when healed. There may be fever and general discomfort.

Photosensitization by chemical substances (exogenous or endogenous): porphyrias, photoallergies and photosensitivity: Lesions compatible with an exaggerated sunburn appear, with no proportion between the intensity of sun exposure and that of the lesions. In the area exposed to the sun there may be erythema, edema, vesicles, blisters, hyperpigmentation, burning, stinging and itching. If the case is photoallergic, eczematous plaques appear with peeling and blistering with an insidious onset and itching.

Diagnosis of Allergy to the Sun

Physical Exam, Medical History and Tests

The doctor will need to know the family history, the usual or recent treatments that the patient follows or has followed, how the disease began, what is its evolution and the previous history of photo-exposure, as well as the cutaneous response to sunscreens.

In addition, it will request a complete blood test, blood biochemistry, antinuclear detection (ANA), antibodies (anti DNA, anti Ro and anti LA), porphyrins in urine and blood, and biopsy with immunofluorescence.

It is key to make a differential diagnosis to be able to conclude on the type of photodermatosis that affects the patient and to be able to apply the appropriate treatment.

Sun Allergy Medication and Treatment

Suitable for the type of Photodermatosis

Treatment must be appropriate to the type of photodermatosis:

Polymorphic sun rash: Avoid sun exposure and use broad-spectrum sunscreens. In severe cases, low-dose prophylactic photochemotherapy may be considered. In patients in whom the rash is not controlled with these measures, topical treatment with corticosteroids or a short course of oral corticosteroids will be prescribed.

Actinic prurigo: It is recommended to cover the skin, avoid sun exposure and use broad-spectrum sunscreens. Thalidomide is also prescribed in intermittent cycles at low doses.

Chronic actinic dermatitis: Full screen photoprotectors with low allergenic potential are prescribed.

Solar urticaria. The treatment is based on avoiding sun exposure and using broad-spectrum sunscreens. To help skin habituation (hardening phenomenon) one month before, an antihistamine and beta-carotene treatment can be prescribed orally.

Hydroa vacciniforme de Bazin: It is very rare and usually appears in children up to ten years of age. It usually coexists with atopic dermatitis . Avoid sun exposure and prophylactic photochemotherapy is usually considered in some cases.

Photosensitization by chemical substances (exogenous or endogenous): Eliminating the substance that causes the symptoms is the main treatment, although possible chronification should be monitored. Sunscreens do not protect against photosensitization by chemical substances. For example, if antibiotic treatment is followed, sun exposure should be avoided during the treatment and up to three days after the end of the treatment.

Prevention of Allergy to the Sun

Sun Protection and Avoid Sun Exposure

Use sunscreen that protects the skin from sun exposure, appropriate to the type of skin and the state of health; and avoiding sun exposure, even with clothing that covers arms and legs as well as hats, are the main preventive measures against possible photodermatosis.

It is also important to remember that if an antibiotic treatment is followed, you should not sunbathe or be exposed to light alone during the treatment and up to three days after the end of it.

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Total Cases

10,942,021

Total Deaths

521,808

Total Recovered

6,114,727

Country/Region
Confirmed cases
Deaths
Recovered
Active cases
USA
2,817,676
131,336
1,180,953
1,505,387
Brazil
1,476,884
61,314
916,147
499,423
Russia
661,165
9,683
428,978
222,504
India
627,168
18,225
379,902
229,041
UK
313,483
43,906
0
269,577
Spain
297,183
28,368
0
268,815
Peru
288,477
9,860
178,245
100,372
Chile
284,541
5,920
249,247
29,374
Italy
240,961
34,818
191,083
15,060
Iran
232,863
11,106
194,098
27,659
Mexico
231,770
28,510
138,319
64,941
Pakistan
217,809
4,473
104,694
108,642
Turkey
202,284
5,167
176,965
20,152
Saudi Arabia
197,608
1,752
137,669
58,187
Germany
196,594
9,063
180,300
7,231
France
166,378
29,875
76,802
59,701
South Africa
159,333
2,749
76,025
80,559
Bangladesh
153,277
1,926
66,442
84,909
Canada
104,643
8,637
68,217
27,789
Colombia
102,009
3,470
43,407
55,132
Qatar
97,897
118
86,597
11,182
China
83,537
4,634
78,487
416
Egypt
71,299
3,120
19,288
48,891
Sweden
69,692
5,370
0
64,322
Argentina
67,197
1,363
24,186
41,648
Belarus
62,698
405
48,738
13,555
Belgium
61,598
9,761
17,044
34,793
Ecuador
59,468
4,639
28,032
26,797
Indonesia
59,394
2,987
26,667
29,740
Iraq
53,708
2,160
27,912
23,636
Netherlands
50,335
6,113
0
44,222
UAE
49,469
317
38,664
10,488
Kuwait
47,859
359
38,390
9,110
Ukraine
45,887
1,185
20,053
24,649
Singapore
44,310
26
39,429
4,855
Portugal
42,782
1,587
28,097
13,098
Kazakhstan
42,574
188
25,533
16,853
Oman
42,555
188
25,318
17,049
Philippines
38,805
1,274
10,673
26,858
Poland
35,146
1,492
22,209
11,445
Panama
34,463
645
15,945
17,873
Bolivia
34,227
1,201
9,764
23,262
Dominican Republic
34,197
765
18,141
15,291
Afghanistan
32,022
807
16,041
15,174
Switzerland
31,967
1,965
29,200
802
Romania
27,746
1,687
19,363
6,696
Bahrain
27,414
93
21,948
5,373
Israel
27,047
324
17,547
9,176
Armenia
26,658
459
15,036
11,163
Nigeria
26,484
603
10,152
15,729
Ireland
25,489
1,738
23,364
387
Honduras
20,262
542
2,123
17,597
Guatemala
19,011
817
3,231
14,963
Japan
18,723
974
16,731
1,018
Azerbaijan
18,684
228
10,425
8,031
Ghana
18,134
117
13,550
4,467
Austria
17,941
705
16,514
722
Moldova
17,150
560
9,846
6,744
Serbia
15,195
287
12,912
1,996
Algeria
14,657
928
10,342
3,387
Nepal
14,519
31
5,320
9,168
Morocco
12,969
229
9,090
3,650
S. Korea
12,904
282
11,684
938
Denmark
12,815
606
11,769
440
Cameroon
12,592
313
10,100
2,179
Czechia
12,116
353
7,821
3,942
Côte d'Ivoire
9,992
68
4,660
5,264
Sudan
9,573
602
4,606
4,365
Uzbekistan
8,996
27
5,892
3,077
Norway
8,902
251
8,138
513
Malaysia
8,643
121
8,437
85
Australia
8,001
104
7,090
807
Finland
7,241
328
6,700
213
DRC
7,189
176
2,317
4,696
Senegal
7,054
121
4,599
2,334
El Salvador
7,000
191
4,115
2,694
Kenya
6,941
152
2,109
4,680
Macedonia
6,625
321
2,748
3,556
Kyrgyzstan
6,261
66
2,530
3,665
Venezuela
6,062
54
1,649
4,359
Tajikistan
6,058
52
4,690
1,316
Haiti
6,040
107
1,032
4,901
Ethiopia
5,846
103
2,430
3,313
Gabon
5,513
42
2,508
2,963
Guinea
5,450
33
4,392
1,025
Bulgaria
5,154
232
2,722
2,200
Bosnia
4,788
189
2,515
2,084
Djibouti
4,715
55
4,564
96
Mauritania
4,606
129
1,727
2,750
French Guiana
4,444
16
1,680
2,748
Luxembourg
4,395
110
4,012
273
Hungary
4,166
587
2,721
858
Costa Rica
4,023
17
1,589
2,417
Central African Republic
3,788
47
810
2,931
Greece
3,458
192
1,374
1,892
Thailand
3,179
58
3,059
62
Palestine
3,080
8
460
2,612
Somalia
2,944
90
951
1,903
Croatia
2,912
110
2,155
647
Albania
2,662
69
1,559
1,034
Mayotte
2,650
35
2,341
274
Nicaragua
2,519
83
1,238
1,198
Madagascar
2,403
24
1,040
1,339
Maldives
2,400
10
1,969
421
Cuba
2,353
86
2,221
46
Paraguay
2,303
19
1,108
1,176
Mali
2,260
117
1,502
641
Sri Lanka
2,066
11
1,827
228
South Sudan
2,021
38
333
1,650
Equatorial Guinea
2,001
32
515
1,454
Estonia
1,990
69
1,842
79
Iceland
1,850
10
1,828
12
Lithuania
1,825
78
1,536
211
Lebanon
1,796
35
1,242
519
Slovakia
1,700
28
1,466
206
Guinea-Bissau
1,654
24
317
1,313
Slovenia
1,634
111
1,384
139
Zambia
1,632
30
1,348
254
New Zealand
1,530
22
1,490
18
Sierra Leone
1,518
60
1,007
451
Congo
1,382
41
486
855
Malawi
1,342
16
271
1,055
Cabo Verde
1,301
15
629
657
Hong Kong
1,243
7
1,120
116
Yemen
1,221
325
513
383
Benin
1,199
21
333
845
Tunisia
1,178
50
1,039
89
Jordan
1,136
9
889
238
Latvia
1,122
30
988
104
Niger
1,075
67
947
61
Rwanda
1,063
3
493
567
Cyprus
999
19
833
147
Burkina Faso
967
53
846
68
Uruguay
943
28
825
90
Georgia
939
15
817
107
Mozambique
918
6
249
663
Uganda
902
0
847
55
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
874
25
223
626
Swaziland
873
11
452
410
Chad
868
74
785
9
Andorra
855
52
799
4
Liberia
819
37
338
444
Sao Tome and Principe
717
13
260
444
Diamond Princess
712
13
651
48
Jamaica
707
10
555
142
San Marino
698
42
656
0
Malta
671
9
649
13
Togo
667
14
424
229
Zimbabwe
617
7
173
437
Montenegro
616
12
315
289
Channel Islands
571
47
512
12
Suriname
535
13
242
280
Réunion
531
2
472
57
Tanzania
509
21
183
305
Taiwan
448
7
438
3
Vietnam
355
0
336
19
Mauritius
341
10
330
1
Isle of Man
336
24
312
0
Angola
315
17
97
201
Syrian Arab Republic
312
9
113
190
Myanmar
304
6
223
75
Comoros
303
7
200
96
Namibia
293
0
24
269
Guyana
248
13
116
119
Martinique
242
14
98
130
Botswana
227
1
28
198
Mongolia
220
0
177
43
Eritrea
215
0
56
159
Cayman Islands
201
1
193
7
Faroe Islands
187
0
187
0
Guadeloupe
182
14
157
11
Gibraltar
178
0
176
2
Burundi
170
1
115
54
Bermuda
146
9
135
2
Cambodia
141
0
131
10
Brunei
141
3
138
0
Trinidad and Tobago
130
8
115
7
Monaco
106
4
95
7
Bahamas
104
11
89
4
Aruba
104
3
98
3
Barbados
97
7
90
0
Liechtenstein
82
1
81
0
Seychelles
81
0
11
70
Bhutan
77
0
50
27
Sint Maarten
77
15
62
0
Antigua and Barbuda
69
3
23
43
French Polynesia
62
0
60
2
Gambia
55
2
27
26
Macao
46
0
45
1
Saint Martin
43
3
37
3
Turks and Caicos Islands
42
2
11
29
Lesotho
35
0
11
24
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
29
0
29
0
Belize
28
2
18
8
Timor-Leste
24
0
24
0
Grenada
23
0
23
0
Curaçao
23
1
19
3
New Caledonia
21
0
21
0
Saint Lucia
19
0
19
0
Lao People's Democratic Republic
19
0
19
0
Fiji
18
0
18
0
Dominica
18
0
18
0
Saint Kitts and Nevis
15
0
15
0
Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
13
0
13
0
Greenland
13
0
13
0
Holy See (Vatican City State)
12
0
12
0
Papua New Guinea
11
0
8
3
Montserrat
11
1
10
0
Western Sahara
10
1
8
1
MS Zaandam
9
2
0
7
British Virgin Islands
8
1
7
0
Caribbean Netherlands
7
0
7
0
St. Barth
6
0
6
0
Anguilla
3
0
3
0
Saint Pierre Miquelon
1
0
1
0
Updated on July 2, 2020 8:56 pm
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